Sharks are members of the Chondrichthyes class, which have a full cartilaginous skeleton and an efficient body. Rays and skates also belong to the same class, so sharks are very close relatives of rays and skates. Surprisingly, most of them belong to the rays more than other sharks. They, like all other fish, breathe through the gills, and not through the lungs, as mammals do.
Sharks have fangs that are not attached to the jaw but embedded in the skin. Their teeth are the most amazing beauty that God has given them. The physical structure of sharks is completely different.
Sharks can be too small, just 22 centimeters, like a pygmy shark, or they can be too big up to 13 meters, like a white shark. To date, more than 360 species of sharks have been discovered. The most famous of all is the Bull Shark.
Sharks have a cartilaginous skeleton, very light and quite flexible with bone. This helps sharks swim underwater and easily travel long distances. Their skin is often protected from parasites and other injuries due to the covering of the dermis of the teeth. All sharks have light bodies, although few have wide fins at the end. Like other fish, they also swim quickly, although they have bulky bodies.
Shark teeth are not attached to the jaw but rooted in the flesh of the mouth. This may be because they need more penetration when attacking their victim. An interesting fact about shark teeth is that, on average, one shark can lose 30,000 teeth in a lifetime. Sharks have tails that give them speed and acceleration. The structure of the tail varies from shark to shark. The shape of the tail gives the shark the ability to survive and prey in different environments.
Sharks are dried by gill incisions, which are located directly to the head in front of the pectoral fin. They also have a modified gill, right above their heads, although they absorb water during respiring. This spiracle plays an important role in bottom-dwelling sharks, where the oxygen concentration in the water is much lower. The eyes of the shark are covered with a tissue called tapetum lucidum, which makes them ideal for the marine environment. The life expectancy of sharks can vary from 20 to 30 years.
Note: All types of Sharks shown in this page is in alphabetical order.
Types of Sharks
Here is the latest list of all types of Sharks that you should know about. Read this extremely detailed list.
1. Angel Shark
Categorized as being critically endangered, an angel shark is just one step away from extinction (in the wild). Its population has declined sharply over the past 50 years, until the time when it has been declared extinct in the North Sea and, apparently been eradicated in the vast territories of the northern Mediterranean. Currently, it is extremely rare in most of its residual range, with the exception of some areas of the Southern Mediterranean and the Canary Islands.
The angel shark is unintentionally caught, mainly during trawling, as in the daytime it lies on the seabed. Over the past fifty years, benthic trawls have increased in the Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Destruction of habitats due to coastal development, increased water sports, pollution, and dredging are also likely threats to this species.
However, the angel shark is protected in three marine reserves of the Balearic Islands, where fishing of this species is prohibited. It is also included in the UK Wildlife and Rural Act, which permits protection from killing, injuring or conquering land and up to 3 nautical miles from the coast.
2. Bahamas Sawshark
The Bahamas sawshark (Pristiophorus schroederi) belongs to the Pristiophoridae family. Unlike to its Asian counterpart (that’s scientist speaks of a member of this same genus), recently introduced – the Pacific Japanese Sawshark (P. japonicus) – this species lives in the Atlantic Ocean. Also known as American Sawshark.
Sawsharks have a long and flat saw-like rostrum, soaked in teeth. These are small slender sharks with flattened heads and a pair or fishing rod under the podium. They are found only on the continental and island shelves of the northwestern and southeastern Atlantic, west Indian and the western part of the Pacific Ocean, in shallow water in temperate regions, deeper in the tropics.
These sharks are viviparous, with an average of 7 to 17 pups. Sawsharks are often confused with sawfishes, which are batoids (rays).
3. Basking Shark
This slow-moving migratory shark is the second largest fish that grows to 40 feet and weighs more than 5 tons. It is often a sight floating at the surface, a huge open mouth that filters 2000 tons of sea water per hour through its complex gills to scoop up zooplankton. Basking sharks is passive and does not pose a danger to humans, but these are large animals and their skin is extremely rough, so care should be taken in any encounters.
Basking sharks size and strength must be respected (there are reports of shark attacks on boats after they have been harpooned). In addition, contact with its skin should be avoided, as it is known that its large dermal denticles damage divers and scientists.
4. Bigeye Sixgill Shark
The bigeye sixgill shark is probably widespread throughout the world in deep water. However, in the western Atlantic from Mexico to the Bahamas, northern Cuba, Nicaragua and Costa Rica have been reported. In the eastern Atlantic, this shark is from France south to Morocco, including the Mediterranean Sea.
It can live along the coasts of Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria. In the Indian Ocean, this shark lives on the eastern and southern shores of the African continent and the island of Aldabra (India). Distribution in the Western Pacific includes Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, New Caledonia, and Australia.
5. Blacktip Reef Shark
A small medium sized shark with recognizable black fins with white accents. Blacktip reef sharks are found in coral reefs, which makes them popular in reef and dive tourism. They are also often displayed in aquariums.
Blacktip reef sharks swim in shallow water, just a few meters deep, near reefs and drop-off zones. They were also sometimes seen in fresh water. These sharks often swim in schools, as seen at the Blacktip Reef aquarium exhibition.
Blacktip Reef sharks feed mainly on reef fish, but sometimes feed on crustaceans, cephalopods, and mollusks.
6. Blue Gray Carpet Shark
The bluegray carpetshark probably leaves the shelter to eat at night. Although little is known about the diet, it is believed that, based on close relatives, it feeds on other invertebrates and small bony fishes.
The bluegrey carpetshark or Colclough’s shark (Brachaelurus colcloughi) is a rare species of shark carpet that is endemic to the shallow coastal waters in northeast Australia. It is one of two existing members of the Brachaeluridae family.
The bluegrey carpetshark has a stocky body with a wide, slightly flattened head, dorsally placed eyes and a pair of long barbels with back skin flaps.
It has large pectoral fins, two dorsal fins of unequal size, located far back on the body, and a large space between the anal fin and the base of the caudal fin.
7. Blue Shark
Blue sharks are curious predators in the open ocean that live across the global ocean, from the tropics to cold temperate waters. They spend most of their lives away from the coast and are truly pelagic species. The common name comes from the blue color of the skin, unique among sharks.
Blue sharks are pelagic sharks, commonly called their characteristic blue color, which then becomes clear white. They have a long elegant body and an expanded conical snout. They are often seen slowly swimming on the surface with the tips of the dorsal and caudal fins of water.
8. Bluntnose Sixgill Shark
The bluntnose sixgill shark is fished both on an industrial scale and commercially. It is associated with lin gear, gill nets, traps and trawls. The flesh is sold fresh, frozen and dried-salted. Also used for oil and fishmeal.
The Bluntnose Sixgill sharks are primitive sharks (the genus Hexanchus), belonging to the family Hexanchidae (“cow sharks”). These deep-sea predators are distinguished by the following characteristics: they have six pairs of long gill slits on each side of their broad head, similar to a comb, yellow lower teeth and a long tail.
9. Broadnose Sevengill Shark
The broadnose sevengill shark (Notorynchus cepedianus) is the only common coastal member of the cowshark family, Hexanchidae – most other representatives prefer deep-sea sharks. Thus, although the basic biology of the entire group remains somewhat mysterious, this large species has been studied more than most hexanochloids (along with the bluntnose sixgill shark). It is distributed in the temperate coastal waters of the world.
This powerful shark can reach 3 meters (almost 10 feet) of total length and up to 107 kg (236 pounds). Its name comes from the presence of seven openings of double gills in comparison with the five gills of most other sharks. Life expectancy os this shark is up to 50 years.
The broadnose sevengill shark is considered potentially dangerous to humans, as it is aggressive when provoked. This shark trembles and snaps when caught, and often shot to avoid injuries to the human. Five unprovoked attacks have been reported since the 16th century, and captive sharks attacked divers in aquarium.
10. Bronze Whaler Shark
The bronze whaler shark is of commercial importance in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, and South Africa. Although the landing data for the bronze whaler is scarce, it is believed that it is used for human consumption, wherever it occurs.
According to the International Shark Attack File, the bronze whaler shark has been implicated in fifteen attacks since 1962, one of which resulted in a fatality. This is considered potentially dangerous to humans.
This breed also belongs to the species of requiem sharks. They can grow up to 11 feet (about 3.3 meters). Although they do not have special decals, they have a well recognizable ridge right between the dorsal fins, which has a bronze color. The teeth are also slightly different from other requiem sharks being hook shaped and narrow.
11. Brownbanded Bamboo Shark
These elongated, slender carpet sharks have frontal fins and an asymmetrical lobed (tail) fin. Young ones are medium brown with a darker brown stripe, but they become pale brown as they grow mature. They live between the shore and the reef on a dirty seabed, where they hunt at night, using the sensitive barbels on their snout to find crabs, worms, and other small prey. Since they are so hardy, able to survive out of water for several hours, they are popular in aquariums.
The brownbanded bamboo shark comes from the Indo-Western Pacific. It can be found from Japan to northern Australia and prefers a depth of about 275 feet. They often visit coral reefs, where they find abundant prey.
Like all sharks, brownbanded bamboo shark are carnivorous and must be fed a meat diet that includes slices of fresh shrimp, scallop, squid and seafood.
A brownbanded bamboo shark can survive out of water for up to 12 hours because it often hunts in tidal ponds. Usually they scour the bottom for food and suck in what they find in the sand. They have not very big mouths and they will spit out everything that is too big to digest.
12. Bull Shark
Bull sharks are aggressive, common and usually live near densely populated areas such as tropical shores. They are not bothered by brackish and fresh water and even flow into internal rivers and tributaries.
Many experts say that bull sharks are the most dangerous sharks in the world. This is because they are aggressive species of sharks and tend to fish in the waters where people often swim: along tropical shorelines.
The bull shark is not a picky eater. Sharks feed mainly on fish, but they can also feed on other species of sharks, mammals, birds, and turtles. Although bull sharks are rare, they also eat other bull sharks. Adult sharks usually hunt alone.
Bull sharks have special glands and kidney functions that help their body retain salt in fresh water.
13. Bullhead Shark
The bullhead sharks are a small order (Heterodontiformes) of modern sharks (Neoselachii). Nine living species are found in one genus, Heterodontus, in the family Heterodontidae. All are relatively small, with the largest species reaching a maximum length of 1.65 meters (5.5 feet). They are bottom feeders in tropical and subtropical waters.
Bullhead shark, also called a horned shark, any shark of the genus Heterodontus, containing about 10 species and representing the family Heterodontidae (order Heterodontiformes). This extremely marine group is found only in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean and in the eastern Pacific Ocean from California to the Galápagos Islands.
Bullhead sharks are harmless to humans and feed on mollusks, crabs and sea urchins; Their teeth are mainly intended for crushing and grinding.
14. Burmese Bamboo Shark
Burmese bamboo shark, also called Chiloscyllium burmensis, is a rare fish that lives in tropical waters off Burma (Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. It belongs to the Hemiscylliidae family, a group known as Longtailed Carpetsharks or Bamboo Sharks.
Burmese bamboo shark found in the northeastern Indian Ocean. It has been observed at a depth of 29 to 33 m (97 to 110 feet). These sharks are not very active and instead prefer to stay on the seabed. In keeping with a cryptic lifestyle, they are flattened dorsally-ventrally, which means they look slightly squashed from the back to the abdomen, like a pancake.
The social behavior of burmese bamboo shark has not been widely studied, but it is believed that they are predominantly solitary shark and usually do not communicate with each other or remain in large groups.
Burmese bamboo shark eats small bony fish at the bottom of the reservoir.
15. Caribbean Reef Shark
The Caribbean reef shark rarely attacks humans. In general, a shark attack on humans is a behavioral analogue to an attack on natural prey. A human is more susceptible to attack if the shark is in the corner and feels that there is no escape route. In such situations, the shark may rake the victim during the attack, leading to a laceration.
They are mainly found on the east coast of America (Atlantic coast) and in the south. The structure of this shark is rational and robust and can be easy to confuse with other sharks in its family. When you look closely, they have an extra rear tip of the second dorsal fin. The first dorsal fin is slightly inclined or bent, and the gill slits are also longer than most other shark species.
The Caribbean reef shark tends to dwell on coral reefs and the ocean floor near continental and insular shelves. They prefer shallow water with a maximum depth of 30 meters. They are often found along the outer edges of coral reefs near the outcrops and lie motionless at the bottom of the ocean.
Caribbean reef sharks are found exclusively in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from North Carolina to Brazil. They are one of the most common sharks species in the Caribbean Sea.
16. Caribbean Roughshark
The Caribbean (Oxynotus caribbaeus) is a small, rare shark that stays at the bottom of the ocean in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Little is known about the life history of this mysterious species, which was described in 1961, but has only recently been discovered in its natural habitat.
Like all rough sharks, they have a compressed body that gives them a triangular cross section. They feed on small fish and invertebrates. They have two dorsal fins, the first of which is located far ahead, almost at the top of the head. Both dorsal fins have a sharp spine, which is usually hidden from the fin. Their skin is very rough and prickly, and they have a luminous organ.
They are ovoviviparous, but the litter sizes is unknown. Pups are born about 20 cm long. They reach a maximum length of 50 cm.
17. Carpet Shark
Carpet shark (order Orectolobiformes), any of about 40 species of sharks that have spots on the body that provoke carpet design. They are found in all oceans, but are concentrated in the Indo-Pacific and Australian regions.
Many species are large, but they are not considered dangerous to humans, although they may protect themselves if harmed. Some species of carpet sharks bear live young, while others lay eggs. Many species of carpet sharks are bottom feeders, feeding mainly on mollusks and crustaceans.
Carpet sharks are found in all oceans around the world, but mainly in tropical and temperate waters. They are most common in the western part of the Indo-Pacific region and are usually found in relatively deep waters.
18. Cookiecutter Shark
The cookiecutter shark is one of the most interesting sharks in the ocean, and it never grows larger than 18-20 inches (~ 50 cm). It gets its common name from its feeding strategy in order to bite off small pieces of much larger animals. This species is small and lives most of its life in a deep sea (mesopelagic). Therefore, it is difficult to study, so little is known about where it lives, but it has been collected or observed in many places around the world, especially in tropical and temperate latitudes.
Cookiecutter sharks have been recorded from various places around the world. In Australia, they are recorded in Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania and Western Australia.
The cookiecutter shark is not commercially fished and is rarely caught accidentally when fishing for other species. Based on a recent analysis, scientists believe the cookiecutter shark is the least concern of species.
It is also reported that a cookiecutter shark is attacking the rubber domes of a submarines. Due to its deep habitat and small size, it does not pose a danger to humans.
19. Copper Shark
The copper shark (Carcharhinus brachyurus) is a coastal species that can be up to 3.5 m long. It is a “requiem shark” (Carcharhinidae family), which is a large shark, such as a tiger shark, which is commonly found in warm seas. This one is also known by many other common names, including a narrow-chested shark, a bronze shark, a cocktail shark, a bronze whaler, and a New Zealand whaler.
The diet consists mainly of demersal fish. Cephalopods and small sharks are also eaten.
It is considered a rather dangerous shark, despite its eating habits. It moves fast, and large specimens are stubborn fighters when hooked.
20. Crested Bullhead Shark
The Crested bullhead shark (Heterodontus galeatus) is a small, not too common species that lives on the east coast of Australia. Other names for this funny looking creature include the Crested horn shark and the Crested Port Jackson shark.
The Crested bullhead is quite different from other members of the Heterodontidae family because of the protrusions on the head above the eyes, from which it got its name. Their diet consists mainly of sea urchins, which stain their teeth purple, and also feed on invertebrates, small fish and eggs of other sharks, in particular the Port Jackson shark.
They feed mainly on sea urchins, crustaceans, mollusks and small fish. It is often seen wedged between cervices and stones in search of its favorite food. Like some of its family members, a crested bullhead shark may have colored stained teeth due to a constant diet of sea urchins.
The crested bullhead shark is also a major predator of the eggs in Port Jackson shark, which are seasonally available and rich in nutrients.
21. Frilled Shark
Frilled sharks are active predators and can be lunge at potential prey, swallowing it whole, even if it is quite large. However, their usual swimming style is distinctly similar to eels, as they are serpentine. Squid is the preferred prey for the grooved shark, and they have several rows of long teeth, each with three long points, which are ideal for snagging the soft bodies of this prey. Although they specialize in squid, the frilled sharks eat a variety of fishes, as well as other sharks.
Many frilled sharks with missing tail tips have been discovered, possibly from predatory attacks by other sharks.
Most frilled sharks are somewhere between 4 to 5 feet.
22. Galapagos Bullhead Shark
The Galapagos Bullhead Shark is found throughout the Galápagos archipelago and on the northern coast of Peru, but very little is known about this species. We know that they live in shallow tropical waters around continental and island shelves. They live as lower inhabitants, where they blend well with their environment. They are about 3-4 feet long, spotty and feline-like eyes, making it locally known as the “cat shark”
Long pectoral fins allow it to quickly move along the bottom of the ocean when it is looking for prey. We know that they lay their eggs, but little is known about their reproductive behavior.
The Galapagos bullhead shark has been present on Earth since the beginning of the Jurassic period, about 200 million years ago.
This shark is active at night when feeding on the seabed with mussels, crabs and small invertebrates. Once prey is crushed, bullhead can eat soft flesh and regurgitate hard shells.
23. Goblin Shark
Goblin sharks are fish species that typically inhabit the ocean floor on continental shelves (or along the edges of the continent). These pink animals can grow 12 feet in length and weigh up to 460 pounds. They have narrow snout and fanglike teeth. Spotted mainly off the coast of Japan, they are named after the mythical goblins that appear in Japanese folklore.
A goblin shark rarely comes into contact with humans; however, due to its large size, it could be potentially dangerous.
24. Gray Reef Shark
This is a classic shaped requiem shark. Like many species of the genus Carcharhinus, it is dark gray on the dorsal surface and paler, almost white on the ventral side. It can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the usually dark edge along the last edge of the caudal fin.
Like all reef sharks, it loves warm and shallow waters near coral reefs or atolls. This is the most common shark in the entire Indo-Pacific region, which spends the most time if its time reaches a depth of 800 meters (2635 feet).
They are active during the day, but even more at night, they feed on reef fish, squid, octopus and various crustaceans, such as crabs and shrimp.
In recent years, the number of gray reef sharks has been declining.
25. Great Hammerhead Shark
Great hammerhead sharks are the tops of predators, they can be found all over the world in coastal warm waters, whose temperature is 68 degrees (20 degrees Celsius) or higher. Unlike hammerhead sharks, great hammerhead sharks are lonely and can only travel long distances of 756 miles (1200 km).
Most types of hammerhead species are relatively small and are considered harmless for humans. However, the great hammerhead’s enormous size and fierceness make it potentially dangerous, although several attacks have been reported.
It is believed that great hammerhead sharks are cannibals eating their own species, if necessary.
26. Great White Shark
The legendary Great White Shark is much fearsome in our minds than in reality. With the growth of scientific research on these elusive predators, their image as senseless killers begins to fade.
The Great White Shark is the largest known predatory fish in the world. It has 300 teeth, but it does not chew its food. Sharks rip their prey into pieces into the size of the mouth, which are swallowed whole.
Located in cool coastal waters around the world, there is no reliable data on the population of the great whites. However, scientists agree that their numbers are declining sharply due to overfishing and by-catch in gillnets, among other factors, and is considered a vulnerable species.
The Great Whites are the largest predatory fish on Earth. They grow on average up to 15 feet in length, although specimens weighing more than 20 feet and up to 5,000 pounds have been recorded.
27. Greenland Shark
Greenland sharks are huge animals, the length of which can reach 5 meters. They can be swam slowly in the deep, cold waters of the North Atlantic.
With this leisurely pace of life and slow growth, sharks were thought to live long. But so far it has been difficult to determine any age.
While Greenland sharks are not generally considered extremely dangerous to humans, there have been Inuit legends of these sharks attacking kayaks. And if that wasn’t enough, the Greenland sharks also have poisonous flesh.
28. Hammerhead Shark
Hammerheads are a family of sharks known for their strange shaped heads. These sharks live in oceans around the world, especially in warm waters and off the coast.
Most species of hammerhead sharks have a similar shape and color. They are grayish in color and sometimes have a green tint. Like many ocean species, they have a countershading coloration that helps them mix. This is when the animal is darker above and lighter underneath with the dark depth or light surface of the water, respectively. Adult length can vary by species and can vary from 3 to 20 feet!
Hammerhead sharks usually feed on diverse prey. They feed on fish, small sharks, squid, octopus, crabs and lobsters. Stingrays are widely hunted as a favorite food.
29. Horn Shark
These little sharks are members of the bullhead family. Moving slowly and leading a nocturnal lifestyle, they scavenge close to the shore and return to the same resting place every day. Both dorsal fins have sharp spines and should be handled with care.
Horn sharks have 19–26 dentitions in the upper jaw and 18–29 dentitions in the lower jaw. The front teeth are small and pointed, with a central tip and two lateral cusplets. The teeth on the side of the mouth are larger and wider, like molars and are used for crushing.
30. Japanese Sawshark
Also known as the Japanese Sawshark, it is a species of sawshark from the Pristiophoridae family. This species is rare in its range, mainly in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean, distributed in Japan, outside the North China Sea near the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, the Bohai Sea and in the southwest of Korea.
The Japanese sawshark lives in temperate regions along the continental shelves and coastal waters. Its geographical coverage in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean includes waters off the coast of Japan, northern China (East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea), Taiwan and southwestern Korea. It does not occur in the western part of the central Pacific Ocean.
The Japanese sawshark is ovoviviparous, which means that its babies, known as pups, develop in eggs inside the mother’s body. The gestation period for a sawshark is usually 12 months, and the average litter size is ten pups. It is assumed that the Japanese sawshark can live in the wild for up to 15 years.
31. Japanese Wobbegong
The Japanese wobbegong shark is a carpet shark found on the shore, usually in sand or sandy silty soils, as well as on rocky and coral reefs. This species is native to the western and northern Pacific Ocean and is common from Japan to Vietnam. Also known as Wobby, Wobbegong, Wobbygone or Wobbygong Shark.
A fine sandy substrate is required in the aquarium to reduce the likelihood of contamination, as its stomach is easily scratched by a coarser substrate. It should never be exposed to copper-based medicines. v It can be difficult to encourage it to eat when first introduced into the aquarium; offering small pieces of cleaned squid may help. You can then feed it with shrimp, scallops or pieces of fresh sea fish.
The Japanese Woggegong shark should only be kept by experienced aquarists.
32. Lemon Shark
Recognized by its bright yellow skin tone, the lemon shark holds the keys to corals and mangrove forests along the Atlantic and parts of the Pacific Ocean. The accumulated accumulation of sharks and other physical characteristics make it a powerful predator underwater, but it is also a common goal for commercial fishermen seeking to sell and trade shark fins and meat.
Lemon shark is viviparous, that is, gives birth to live young rather than eggs. Embryos develop inside the mother for up to 12 months, while the female seeks shelter in a shallow nursery in spring or summer. A lemon shark litter can have up to 17 pups. Pups remain in the nursery for several years, sheltered from larger predators and feed on nutrients from nearby mangroves. Lemon sharks reach puberty at about 6 years old and can live up to 27 years.
The lemon shark is intended for commercial and recreational fishing in its entire range and is listed as endangered by the IUCN Red List. Shark fins and meat are highly sought after for sale in international markets. The skin thickness of lemon shark also makes it ideal for leather production.
Lemon sharks have a very wide appetite, eating all kinds of fish, rays, crustaceans, seabirds and other sharks.
33. Leopard Shark
Leopard sharks live in the narrow ocean and Pacific Ocean entrance zone between Oregon and the Gulf of Mexico. They are one of the most common sharks found on the California coast. These sharks have dark, saddle-shaped splotches along the fins and upper body.
There were no reports of fatal attacks on humans by leopard sharks. In fact, there are only a few recorded leopard shark attacks. These attacks can take the form of a shark that has just come bumping into a human.
Leopard sharks are sometimes found as a food source for humans. Due to slow growth rates, late maturity and low reproduction output, catching too many leopard sharks can lead to a rapid reduction in their population.
Leopard sharks are one of the most beautiful shark species you might meet. They are small in size (especially compared to the more famous sharks such as the whale shark or the great white shark), reaching a maximum of seven feet from the tip of the snout to the tail. However, most sharks of this species are no more than five or six feet long.
34. Mackerel Shark
Mackerel sharks get their name because of their preferred prey, which is predominantly herring, but also includes related fish such as mackerel and sardines. Many years ago, mackerel sharks were widespread in the North Atlantic. Today they should be classified as endangered.
Mackerel sharks feed mainly on pelagic schoolers such as herring, sardines and mackerels. They also eat cod and other gadoids, as well as small species of sharks (found in the gastric analysis).
Sharks in this order feed on bone fish, sharks, rays, squid and crustaceans. Species in this order include familiar thresher sharks, basking sharks, mako sharks, and great white sharks.
Mackerel sharks is found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean depths of 600 to 4,000 feet. Females give birth to live young, but sometimes developing sharks babies eat siblings before they are born.
35. Mako Shark
Mako sharks, also known as mackerel sharks and (in Australia) blue pointers, vary in tropical and temperate seas. They are simple and relatively thin and have pointed snouts, sickle-shaped tails and long thin teeth. Body color varies from gray-blue to dark blue dorsally and is white ventrally. The largest adults can reach 4.5 meters in length and weigh more than 500 kg (about 1,100 pounds).
Mako sharks prey on fish such as herring, mackerel and swordfish, as well as small cetaceans. They are exceptional food and fish, valued for their fighting qualities and numerous jumps from the water.
Makos are supreme hunters and predators, which means that there are no predators in their ecosystem. This makes them necessary to control the overpopulation of their production, prevent one type of monopolization of limited resources and help maintain a complex and diverse marine ecosystem.
Like the Great White, the mako shark belongs to the mackerel family. Usually the generic name “mako” actually refers to two types: shortfin and longfin mako.
36. Megalodon Shark
The megalodon shark is an extinct species of shark that lived approximately 23 to 3.6 million years ago (mya) during the Early Miocene to the Pliocene. It was previously believed to be a member of the Lamnidae family and a close relative of the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias).
However, at present it belongs to the extinct family Otodontidae, which moved away from the great white shark at the beginning of the Cretaceous. Its hereditary debated is still debated, the authors placing it in Carcharocles, Megaselachus, Otodus or Procarcharodon. This is due to the fact that transient fossils have been discovered, indicating that Megalodon is the last chronospecies of the origin of giant sharks, originally belonging to the genus Otodus, that evolved during the Paleocene.
37. Megamouth Shark
The megamouth shark is a rare shark and large species, weighing up to 2700 pounds (1215 kg). However, it is the smallest of the three species of filter-feeding sharks, behind the whale shark and basking shark. Megamouth shark got its name from a surprisingly large round mouth. On an individual about 16 feet (5 m) long, the mouth is about four feet (1.3 m) long. This species has only been observed in the wild only a few times, and, as scientists know, less than 60 individuals have ever been caught or observed.
Megamouth sharks have very small mucous (tongue) and dermal (on the skin) teeth, which differ in shape and size in each area of the body. There are many pigment cells on the dorsal side, but they are not on the ventral side.
The megamouth shark is a member of the same order of sharks, which includes white sharks, basking sharks and mako sharks.
38. Nurse Shark
Nurse sharks are slow-moving bottom dwellers and, for the most part, harmless to humans. However, they can be huge-up to 14 feet – and have very strong jaws filled with thousands of tiny, serrated teeth, and will bite on the defensive if they stepped on or interfere with divers who consider themselves obedient.
Nurse sharks are usually not aggressive and usually swim far when approached. However, some unprovoked attacks on swimmers and divers have been reported. If they are disturbed, they may be bitten by a powerful, vise-like grip that can result in serious injury. In some cases, the jaw is blocked and can only be released with surgical instruments. The frequency of bites has increased in recent years as a result of ecotourism feeding operations.
39. Oceanic Whitetip Shark
Ocean Whitetip has earned a reputation as the first to arrive on the scene when ocean liners diverge – especially during the war time. The shark has been blamed for many of the deaths associated with the sinking of a Nova Scotia steamship off the coast of South Africa during World War II. Only 192 of the nearly 1,000 people on board survived.
The Oceanic whitetip ocean sharks are long-lived, late ripe and have low to moderate productivity.
The oceanic whitetip shark is considered the top predator, eating at the top of the food chain. They are opportunistic, eating mainly bony fish and cephalopods such as squid.
40. Pacific Sleeper Shark
The Pacific Sleeper Shark, also mentioned in the scientific community Somniosus pacificus, belongs to the shark family Somniosidae. However, unlike its cousins, it does not grow more than 23 feet (7 meters). One of these sharks was recently caught using a bait in a bay in Tokyo, Japan, which measures 7 meters or 23 feet. In adulthood, they usually weigh about 340 kg or 750 kg and usually about 12 feet or 3.6 meters in length.
The Pacific Sleeper Shark has a rounded and short snout. It is gray or gray-black, bristles and rough skin. They have a cylindrical body, and the dorsal fins are low.
41. Porbeagle Shark
The Porbeagle shark has a solid body shape that is simplified for quick movement. It is believed that their name comes from porpoise shaped bodies and their hunting abilities! Porbeagle sharks that identify features include a sharp, pointed nose with S-shaped nostrils and a large, curved mouth. The Porbeagle Shark is also one of many sharks with five gill slits!
The Porbeagle Sharks, including mackerel and herring, are the first prey of Porbeagle Sharks, but sometimes they like cephalopods such as squid. When they do not dive to the bottom of the ocean to dine, they can often be seen how they steal fish from longline boats!
42. Port Jackson Shark
The Port Jackson Shark is a distinctive blunt-headed fish that has a spine in front of both dorsal fins. Port Jackson Sharks have a harness mark that crosses their eyes, runs along the back to the first dorsal fin, and then crosses the sides of the body. This pattern makes it very easy to identify species.
According to the International Shark Attack File, there are no confirmed shark attacks by Port Jackson sharks. Sharks from Port Jackson are generally considered harmless, but if provoked, they can be a threat.
Port Jackson Sharks usually live in rocky environments at or near the bottom. Sometimes they are found in mud and sandy areas or where seagrass is found.
43. Prehistoric Shark
New research found to the surprise of scientists and viewers the remains of a small prehistoric shark that lived in the dinosaur era 67 million years ago.
A prehistoric shark that lived 30 million years ago was discovered more than 100 miles from the nearest sea in Aiken, South Carolina.
44. Prickly Dogfish Shark
Pickly Dogfish (Oxynotus bruniensis) is a little-known deep-sea shark that lives in temperate waters outside of Australia and New Zealand. It is also referred to as a rough shark, Prickly Shark, or as a “pepeke” among the Maori people of New Zealand.
Like the lack of information about the general biology of this species, little is known about its diet and behavior in food. The mouth has thick fleshy lips, spear-shaped teeth on the upper jaw and teeth similar to a blade on the lower jaw. This anatomy resembles the jaws of a Cookie Cutter Shark.
These dogfish spend their time on the seabed, so it is believed that their diet consists of bottom fish and invertebrates.
45. Sailfin Rough Shark
In the depths of the northeast Atlantic you will find the Sailfin Rough Shark, (Oxynotus paradoxus), although it is rare. Also known as the Kite-Fin shark, it is one of four species that make up the family of small rough sharks (Oxynotidae). These deep-sea sharks are weak swimmers who use their large oil-filled livers to stay afloat.
Sailfin Rough Shark is also known as kite-fin shark, one of the four species that make up the coarse shark family. Sailfin rough are poor swimmers and use a large oil filled liver to float on water.
46. Sand Shark
Sand shark, any of the three species of sharks of the genus Carcharias and Odontaspis in the family Odontaspididae. Sand sharks are found in shallow water, usually near or near the bottom, along the tropical and temperate coastlines of all oceans. They are 3 to 6 meters (10–20 ft) long and are brown or gray above, paler below. Voracious, but generally lethargic, they have long, thin, pointed teeth and prey on fishes and invertebrates. Sand sharks are potentially dangerous to humans.
Sand sharks are known to live in warm temperate waters around the world, with the exception of eastern pacific, and they can often be seen along the coastline. Sand sharks stay close to shore for a reason: gulp in the air! Sand sharks are the only known sharks that come to the surface to absorb air. They store this air in their stomach and use it to swim during the hunt in order to keep their prey in the dark.
47. Sand Tiger Shark
The sand tiger shark, also known as the gray nurse shark, is a slow-moving coastal predator characterized by flattened conical snouts and jagged teeth similar to those of a tiger shark. It has small eyes and light brown skin that looks like sand, helping the shark blend in with the environment when viewed from above.
Like other shark species, sand tiger sharks can detect prey electric current using electrical receptors in their snouts. This is especially beneficial for sharks such as the sand tiger, which feeds on bottom prey hiding in the sand.
48. Sawback Angelshark
The sawback angelshark (Squatina aculeata) is an endangered coastal species that was once common in the subtropical waters of the Mediterranean and East Atlantic Ocean. This shark is also called monkfish, spiny angelshark, or sawback angelshark.
Sawback angelsharks have a flat spotty gray body that provides excellent camouflage. This is useful because they spend most of their time lying buried in the sandy bottom of the ocean.
The sawback angelshark can be found on the seabed in shallow bays to a depth of 500 m! Experts know little about its ecology or reproductive biology, although they know that reproduction occurs due to placental viviparity. Its diet consists of small sharks, fish, cuttlefish and crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs.
Sawsharks are relatively small sharks, characterized by a long conical rostrum (snout) with numerous sharp teeth along the edges. Double elongated barbels (feelers) occur on the ventral side of the podium. Regular and eastern sawsharks have 19-25 teeth on each side of the rostrum, with the barbels located slightly closer to the tip of the snout.
Sawsharks are a simple lower species that lives on the continental shelf and upper slope. They can be found at depths of up to 300 meters. Sawsharks can be found in large schools or feeding aggregations. Some species are segregated by age, with adults found in deeper waters than younger ones.
50. Scalloped Hammerhead Shark
The scalloped hammerhead is a hammerhead shark and is part of the Sphyrnidae family. Originally known as Zygaena lewini, the name of its genus was later changed to its current name. The Greek word sphyrna is translated as “hammer” in English, referring to the shape of the head of this shark.
Scientists are not sure why scalloped hammerheads form these random large groups, while maintaining a lonely lifestyle most of the time between them, but they seem to be social animals for at least part of the year. They mate through internal fertilization and give birth to young animals that spend several years in coastal nurseries, and then move into adult populations around deeper reefs, underwater areas and other open ecosystems.
51. Sharpnose Sevengill Shark
Sharpnose sevengill sharks, Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre, 1788), also known as single-fin sharks, perlon sharks, sevengill cow sharks, sevengilled Mediterranean sharks, sevengilled sharks, shark sharks and slender sharks, are members of the oldest order of sharks and cow sharks, Hexanchiformes. Sharks with a hexane shape have one dorsal fin or six or seven gill slits (versus 5 found in all other existing sharks), and there are no nictitating membranes (protective third eyelids).
This species reaches a maximum length of 1.4 m (4.6 ft). Its name describes the presence of seven double gill holes that extend to the throat, while most sharks have only five.
The sharpnose sevengill shark is widespread in temperate and tropical seas around the world, with the exception of the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is common in only a few areas, with almost nothing known about its biology and population ecology.
52. Shortfin Mako Shark
Shortfin mako sharks grows slowly, reaches 13 feet in length and can live up to 30 years.
The Shortfin Mako is believed to be the fastest of all sharks, capable of swimming at speeds of up to 20 miles per hour. Before attacks, sharks usually swim in the form of eight patterns and approach their prey with an open mouth.
53. Silky Shark
The silky shark, also known as Carcharhinus Falciformis, got its name from the smooth and silky texture of its skin. Depending on its geographical location, it is also known as the Gray Reef Shark, Olive, Whaler and sometimes Blackspot.
The silky shark is more active, but still less aggressive than the other two large pelagic sharks, the blue shark and the ocean gray hair. It can be seen offshore more often than blue and ocean white sharks, but it is still a pelagic shark, and it is rarely seen offshore. Silky sharks are most often seen on reefs which have deep drop offs. The impression one gets on seeing a Silky shark is the impression of trouble-free maneuverability and incredible speed.
54. Silvertip Shark
The silvertip shark is a large requiem shark belonging to the Carcharhinidae family, with fragmentary distribution in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. This species is commonly found around sea islands and coral reefs and is known to dive to a depth of 800 m (2600 ft). The silver shark resembles a large and large gray reef shark (C. amblyrhynchos), but it can be easily identified by the noticeable white margins of the fins, with a maximum length of 3 meters (10 feet).
Silvertip sharks are found mainly in tropical areas of the western Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and East African waters. They are also found in the western Pacific Ocean from southern Japan to northern Australia, including Taiwan, the Philippines, and the Solomon Islands, as well as in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja, California to Columbia.
55. Spiny Dogfish Shark
The spiny dogfish may have many names, including pike dogfish, rock salmon and spiky dog, but only one truly represents a unique defense strategy for this shark. Using sharp poisonous spikes in front of each dorsal fin, the spiny dogfish is a small but powerful predator that is not afraid to take a jab at passing of fish. They are considered one of the most common species of living sharks in the ocean, but they are harmless to humans.
56. Thresher Shark
Thresher sharks are easy to recognize by their “weaponised” fin, which can be up to 6 feet (6 meters) long. During the hunt, sharks swim next to school of fish, and then break sharply, as a result of which their caudal fin to flick over the body into the school with an average speed of more than 30 miles per hour, stunning and killing the fish. The thresher can then eat at its leisure.
As major predators, thresher sharks help manage healthy marine ecosystems. They feed on the animals below them along the food chain and thus control the size of their prey. Sharks also influence the behavior of their victims, including the level of activity and use of the habitat. In the end, they do not allow one species to monopolize scarce resources and, therefore, are crucial for the balance of a complex and diverse marine ecosystem.
The easiest way to recognize a thresher shark is too long tail. Only the upper half of the tail fin is long, the lower half is much more proportional to the size of the shark. Each species is slightly different, but they all have this unique feature.
57. Tiger Shark
The tiger shark gets its name from the characteristic vertical stripes that cover the sides of its body. Despite the fact that by the time individuals reach adulthood, they are very noticeable in juveniles and at least party visible throughout the lifetime. At least 18 feet (5.5 m) long and 2,000 pounds (almost a metric tonne) long, the tiger shark is the fourth largest shark and the second largest predatory shark, second only to the great white.
Tiger sharks are named because of the dark vertical stripes that are found mainly in juveniles. As these sharks grow older, the lines begin to fade and almost disappear.
These large, blunt-nosed predators have a well-deserved reputation as a man-eaters. They are second only to the great whites in attacking people. But since they have an almost completely obscene taste, they are unlikely to swim far after biting a human, as great whites often do.
Tiger sharks are common in tropical and subtropical waters around the world. Large specimens can grow up to 20-25 feet in length and weigh more than 1900 pounds.
According to the International Shark Attack File, the tiger shark is second only to the white shark in terms of recorded attacks on humans. The shark observation team notes that the “large size and gluttony” of the animal defines it as a formidable marine predator. Surfers and swimmers should be aware that tiger sharks are generally curious and aggressive when they spot people in the water.
58. Whale Shark
The whale shark is the largest fish and shark in the world, its length reaches 40 feet or more, the whale shark has a huge menu to choose from. Fortunately for most sea-dwellers—and us! their favorite dish is plankton. They catch these small plants and animals along with any small fish that are nearby, with their colossal gaping mouths, when they swim at the surface of the water.
The whale shark has a huge mouth that can reach up to 4 feet (1.4 m) across, located in front of the head.
The whale shark on a dark gray back has a two-color pattern of light spots with a white underside.
Like very large, slow-moving animals, whale sharks have been fishing quite strongly in the last few decades, and people often accidentally fall into fishing gear intended for other species. Whale shark is eaten in some parts of the world, and fins are also valuable. Currently, scientists believe that whale sharks are vulnerable to extinction.
Fortunately, a large tourism industry has been developed for viewing whale sharks in the wild, and their value alive is higher than their value for fishermen. For this reason and because they are so impressive animals, most places around the world offer whale sharks full legal protection. Unfortunately, illegal fishing still occur in some places.
59. Whitetip Reef Shark
The Whitetip Reef Shark is a thin medium-sized shark characterized by dorsal and tail fins that give this species its name. Whitetip+ reef sharks are known for using their subtle bodies to maneuver in caves and crevices through coral reef habitats in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
The Whitetip Reef Shark is found in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They exist as far in the west as the coasts of South Africa and Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean, and they can be seen as far in the east as the coasts of Costa Rica and Panama in the Pacific Ocean. They are most prominent in the Indo-Pacific seas and around the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent.
Whitetip reef sharks feed on benthic animals such as fish, octopus, and spiny lobsters. They have been observed feed at night on Cocos Island, Costa Rica, and moved along the face like a phalanx of soldiers, like a phalanx of soldiers flushing out sleeping prey.
60. Zebra Bullhead Shark
A Zebra Bullhead Shark (Heterodontus zebra) is a common but little-known member of the Bullhead and Horn Shark family, Heterodontidae. This group of bottom bottom dwelling sharks consists of one genus, including eight living species. These are small gawky-looking creatures that really don’t look like your regular shark.
This particular type of bullhead species lives in the subtropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean. Despite its awkward shape, this aquatic “zebra” is a particularly attractive fish, colored with dark vertical stripes on a pale background.
Although the Zebra Bullhead sharks have many desirable characteristics for the life of the aquarium, they require a very large aquarium, as they reach adult sizes up to 4 feet in length. A Zebra Bullhead Shark is a good beginner shark for experienced marine aquarium enthusiasts who want to keeping sharks species, provided if they have a very large (1000 gallons or more) aquarium.
In their natural habitats, Zebra Bullhead Sharks feed on bottom dwelling invertebrates and crustaceans with occasional small bony fish. Zebra Bullhead Sharks are night hunters who roam the ocean floor in search of urchins, mollusks and other similar prey buried in the sand or moving over stones.
61. Zebra Shark
A zebra shark is a large, peculiar shark that lives in the shallow habitats of coral reefs in tropical waters, where they can escape into narrow crevices and caves in search of food. Its appearance, which changes when the shark reaches maturity, causes confusion among divers who often mistake it for a leopard shark. While zebra sharks are born dark brown with yellowish streaks until they reach adulthood, they shed their stripes in the form of small black dots on a tanned complexion that resembles the appearance of a leopard.
Zebra sharks are usually found above the sand near corals and rocky reefs up to 62 meters deep.
Zebra sharks mainly live in sea waters, but are found in brackish and freshwater habitats.