Arthritis is a broad word that refers to a variety of diseases that affect the joints, surrounding tissues, and other connective tissues. Arthritis is defined as the inflammation or swelling of one or more joints. Arthritis is typically diagnosed as a result of acute or chronic joint inflammation, which is commonly accompanied by pain and structural abnormalities. Arthritis is caused by a variety of factors, including infection, crystal deposition, heredity, injury, and repeated usage. Joint pain and stiffness are common symptoms of arthritis, which vary depending on the kind.
To learn more about a specific type of arthritis, select one of the most common types from the list below. The Foundation will continue to add to this website as new material becomes available to address as many different forms of arthritis as possible. We are dedicated to discovering innovative therapies and cures for all those who are suffering. Arthritis is a condition in which one or more of your joints enlarge and become tender. Joint pain and stiffness are the most common symptoms of arthritis, which usually increase with age. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the two most prevalent forms of arthritis.
Cartilage ” the firm, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint ” breaks away as a result of osteoarthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a condition in which the body’s immune system assaults the joints, starting with the joint lining. Gout is caused by uric acid crystals that develop when too much uric acid is in your blood. Other kinds of arthritis can be caused by infections or underlying diseases like psoriasis or lupus.
Depending on the kind of arthritis, several treatments are available. Treatments for arthritis are primarily aimed at reducing symptoms and improving quality of life.
Fast Facts On Arthritis
- Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis are only two of the 200 rheumatic illnesses and disorders that affect joints that are classified as arthritis.
- It can produce a variety of symptoms and make it difficult for a person to accomplish daily chores.
- Physical activity has been shown to enhance pain, function, and mental health in people with arthritis.
- Injury, aberrant metabolism, genetic composition, infections, and immune system malfunction are all factors in the development of arthritis.
- Controlling pain, minimising joint damage, and improving or maintaining quality of life are all goals of treatment. Medication, physical therapy, and patient education and support are all part of the process.
Different Types of Arthritis
Here is the latest list of all types of arthritis that you should know about.
In the United States, osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent kind of arthritis. OA is also known as degenerative joint disease or “wear and tear” arthritis. Patients with osteoarthritis experience discomfort, soreness, stiffness, reduced range of motion, and swelling in their hands, hips, and knees.
In the United States alone, osteoarthritis is estimated to impact over 30 million individuals,* equating to about one in every ten persons suffering from the severe consequences of arthritis. The huge number of patients shows why more research money is needed to develop a treatment for arthritis.
OA is a degenerative joint condition that causes inflammation and cartilage loss in the joints over time. OA affects weight-bearing joints including the knees, hips, and spine, causing stiffness, inflexibility, and discomfort. However, it can happen in any joint. Unlike systemic, autoimmune types of arthritis (Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis), Osteoarthritis does not harm the body’s organs.
Fibromyalgia, often known as fibromyalgia, is a chronic pain disorder that affects the entire body. Sleep disturbances, tiredness, and mental or emotional anguish are all symptoms of fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia patients are frequently more sensitive to pain than non-fibromyalgia patients. Abnormal pain perception processing is the term for this.
Fibromyalgia affects around 2% of the adult population in the United States, or about 4 million people. Although the origin of fibromyalgia has yet to be discovered, research has led to the development of effective therapies that can help you manage it.
Gout is a kind of arthritis that affects a large number of people. Gout was previously known as the “King’s Disease” because a high-protein, high-alcohol diet can produce a buildup of uric acid crystals, resulting in a gout flare. Gout generally affects one joint at a time, with the big toe joint in your foot being the most commonly afflicted.
As uric acid crystals pile up in your toe joint, they become extremely painful and make walking and moving around difficult. Repeated attacks of gout, if left untreated, can develop to gouty arthritis, a more severe form of arthritis.
Gout is most frequent in males and adults who are overweight or obese. Although there is no cure for gout, medications and dietary changes can help you manage your symptoms.
4. Psoriatic Arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune illness in which the body’s immune system overreacts and destroys healthy tissues. Swelling, stiffness, discomfort in the joints and surrounding tissues, nail changes, and severe tiredness are all symptoms of PsA.
According to the National Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis affects up to 30% of persons with psoriasis (NPF). PsA, an inflammatory type of arthritis, affects an estimated 2.25 million people in the United States.
Psoriatic arthritis patients have the red patches of skin and silvery scales that psoriasis patients have and the joint pain and stiffness that autoimmune arthritis patients have.
5. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune illness in which the body attacks its own tissues, starting with the thin tissue membrane lining joints.
* Fluid builds up in the joints as the body’s immune system “fights” itself, causing edoema, inflammation, and severe discomfort throughout the body.
Rheumatoid arthritis is not a treatable illness at this time. Rheumatoid arthritis causes persistent symptoms, which means that most patients will feel well for a few days, weeks, or months before experiencing an excruciatingly painful “flare.” While some people experience the sickness at work all of the time, others go into “remission” for months or even years.
That’s a lot of people in the United States who have been diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, often known as Lupus, but it’s likely that many more are suffering from its symptoms without ever realizing they have this chronic, inflammatory, and sometimes deadly disease.
Lupus is classified as an autoimmune illness because it causes the body to fight against itself by destroying healthy tissue. Lupus comes in four main types, each with its own set of symptoms. The Arthritis National Research Foundation (ANRF) awards funds to researchers working on Lupus cures and treatments since it is an autoimmune illness similar to other kinds of arthritis.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory illness that can lead to the fusion of part of your spine’s vertebrae if left untreated. When your vertebrae fuse, your spine becomes less flexible, causing discomfort, inflammation, poor posture, breathing difficulties, and a lower quality of life.
Ankylosing spondylitis, which affects more males than women, usually appears in early adulthood. While AS is most commonly associated with the spine, inflammation can also occur in other parts of the body, most notably the eyes. There are therapies that can help you manage your symptoms and perhaps delay the course of ankylosing spondylitis, but there is currently no cure.
8. Juvenile Arthritis
JUVENILE ARTHRITIS HAS BEEN DIAGNOSED IN APPROXIMATELY 300,000 CHILDREN. One kind of juvenile arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is extremely common, affecting more than 50,000 children in the United States alone. In the United States, JIA is commonly referred to as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). The following names and forms also know juvenile arthritis:
- Still’s illness or JIA with a systemic onset
- JIA oligoarticular (affecting fewer than 5 joints)
- JIA polyarticular (affecting five or more joints)
- Inflammation caused by enthesitis
- Psoriatic arthritis in children
When a child’s body begins to exhibit signs of juvenile arthritis, many parents dismiss swollen joints and fever as a flu bug or believe a sudden rash is the result of an allergic response. The symptoms may even go away for a while before reappearing, delaying diagnosis for a long period. After all, who would think that a little child would get arthritis?
9. Inflammatory Arthritis
Inflammation is a natural element of the healing process in the body. Inflammation is a natural defense against viruses and bacteria and a reaction to traumas like burns. Inflammation develops in patients with inflammatory arthritis for no obvious cause.
Inflammatory arthritis is characterized by painful inflammation that is not a natural response to injury or illness. This sort of inflammation is counterproductive, since it damages the joints, causing pain, stiffness, and edoema. Inflammatory arthritis can affect several joints, causing damage to the joint’s surface as well as the underlying bone.
10. Degenerative Or Mechanical Arthritis
Degenerative arthritis, also known as mechanical arthritis, is a group of diseases characterized by deterioration to the cartilage that covers the ends of the bones. The smooth, slippery cartilage’s primary function is to aid in the smooth glide and movement of the joints. The cartilage thins and becomes rougher as a result of this form of arthritis.
The body attempts to rebuild the bone in an attempt to restore stability after cartilage loss and alterations in joint function. Osteophytes are unwanted bone growths that can form as a result of this. It’s possible that the joint will become deformed. Osteoarthritis is the common name for this ailment. Osteoarthritis can also develop as a result of earlier joint injury, such as a fracture or inflammation.
11. Soft Tissue Musculoskeletal Pain
Various than the joints and bones, soft tissue musculoskeletal pain is felt in other tissues. Following an injury or overuse, such as tennis elbow, the pain usually affects a specific region of the body and originates in the muscles or soft tissues that support the joints. Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that is accompanied by other symptoms.
12. Back Pain
Muscles, discs, nerves, ligaments, bones, and joints can all cause back discomfort. Back discomfort can be caused by issues with the body’s organs. It can also be caused by transferred pain, such as when a condition elsewhere in the body causes back discomfort.
It’s possible that a specific cause, such as osteoarthritis, is to blame. When it affects the spine, it’s known as spondylosis. This may be detected by imaging testing or a physical examination. Back discomfort can also be caused by a “slipped” disc or osteoporosis, or bone weakening. When a doctor cannot pinpoint the exact reason for back pain, it is commonly referred to as “non-specific” pain.
13. Connective Tissue Disease (Ctd)
Other bodily parts and organs are supported, bound together, or separated by connective tissues. Tendons, ligaments, and cartilage are among them. CTD is characterized by joint discomfort and inflammation. Other tissues, such as the skin, muscles, lungs, and kidneys, may be affected by the inflammation. This can cause a variety of symptoms in addition to aching joints, and it may necessitate contact with a number of specialists.
14. Infectious Arthritis
Inflammation can occur when a bacteria, virus, or fungus penetrates a joint. Antibiotics or other antimicrobial medications may usually clean up a joint infection. However, if the infection persists for a long period, the arthritis can become chronic, and joint damage may be irreparable.
Uric acid is a chemical produced by the body when purines are broken down. Purines may be present in human cells as well as a variety of foods. The majority of uric acid dissolves in the blood and is transported to the kidneys. It then flows out in the pee. Some people have excessive uric acid levels because their bodies either manufacture more than they need or can’t remove the uric acid fast enough.
Uric acid builds up and deposits in the joints in certain people, forming needle-like crystals that cause severe joint pain or a gout episode. If uric acid levels are not decreased, gout can come and go in episodes or become chronic. It usually affects a single or small group of joints, such as the big toe and hands. The extremities are frequently affected. According to one idea, uric acid crystals develop in colder joints, distant from the body’s primary heat source.
15. Childhood Arthritis
This term can apply to a variety of different forms of arthritis. The most prevalent kind of Trusted Source is juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Arthritis in children can result in chronic joint damage, and there is no treatment. Remission, on the other hand, is a state in which the illness is dormant. It might be related to issues with the immune system.
16. Septic Arthritis
This is estimated to impact 2 to 10 persons out of every 100,000 people in the general population. It may impact 30 to 70 persons per 100,000 people with RA.
A bacterial or fungal infection causes septic arthritis, which is an inflammation of the joints. The knee and hip are the most often affected areas. It can happen when bacteria or other disease-causing microbes travel via the bloodstream to a joint, or when the joint is directly infected with a microbe due to an accident or surgery.
Most instances of acute septic arthritis are caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Chronic septic arthritis is caused by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. Acute septic arthritis is less prevalent than chronic septic arthritis. Septic arthritis may strike anyone at any age. It can happen before the age of three in babies. At this age, the hip is a common source of infection.
From the age of three through adolescence, septic arthritis is rare. If they haven’t been vaccinated, children with septic arthritis are more likely than adults to develop Group B Streptococcus or Haemophilus influenzae. Since the use of the H. influenzae b (Hib) vaccine became widespread, the incidence of bacterial arthritis caused by H. influenzae infection has reduced by around 70% to 80%.
17. Sjögren’S Syndrome
Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease that can coexist with RA and SLE. The destruction of glands that generate tears and saliva is involved. This causes dryness in the lips and eyes and other moisturising regions, including the nose, throat, and skin. Joints, lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, digestive organs, and nerves can all be affected. Sjögren’s syndrome is most common in people between the ages of 40 and 50, especially women.
According to a research published in Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, primary Sjögren’s disease affects tissues other than the glands in 40 to 50 percent of patients. It might damage the lungs, liver, or kidneys and cause skin vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, and low levels of C4. All of this points to a connection between Sjögren’s syndrome and the immune system.
Scleroderma is a category of illnesses that damage the body’s connective tissue. Patches of hard, dry skin will appear on the individual. Internal organs and tiny arteries can be affected by some kinds. Scar-like tissue forms beneath the skin’s surface, causing injury. The reason behind this is still unknown. It most commonly affects adults between the ages of 30 and 50, and it can be associated with other autoimmune illnesses like lupus.
Scleroderma affects people in different ways. Skin difficulties, heart weakening, lung damage, gastrointestinal issues, and renal failure are among the consequences.
19. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Lupus, or systemic lupus erythematosus, is an autoimmune illness in which the immune system generates antibodies against cells in the body, causing extensive inflammation and tissue damage. Periods of sickness and remissions define the condition. It can develop at any age, although the most common age of onset is between the ages of 15 and 45. Between 4 and 12 women will develop lupus for every guy who develops it.
Lupus may wreak havoc on the joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, and other body organs. Fatigue, joint discomfort or swelling, skin rashes, and fevers are some of the symptoms.
The reason is unknown, although genetic, environmental, and hormonal variables may be involved.
20. Ankylosing Spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a disease that mostly affects the spine. The most common symptoms are pain and stiffness, and the disease can result in the bones of the joints fusing together.
Bursa inflammation is not a form of arthritis, although it has symptoms that are similar to arthritis and can lead to arthritis in some situations.
22. Arthritis In General
The inflammatory disorders of the joints are referred to as “arthritis.” This section discusses the causes of joint pain as well as the many kinds of arthritis.
23. Anatomy Of A Joint
Many types of arthritis and other diseases can cause pain and discomfort in the joints.
24. Polymyalgia Rheumatica
Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory illness that primarily affects the elderly. Learn more about polymyalgia rheumatica’s typical symptoms and causes, as well as how the illness is diagnosed and the treatment options available.
25. Pseudogout (CPPD)
Pseudogout (CPPD) is an inflammatory arthritis caused by the accumulation of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in a joint. Pseudogout can affect every joint in the body, although the knee is the most common site of infection.
26. Reactive Arthritis
Inflammatory arthritis that develops as a result of an infection is known as reactive arthritis. Pain and inflammation in the joints and eyes and skin issues are common symptoms of this illness.
27. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition that affects the spine and back. It does not cause inflammation, unlike other kinds of arthritis. It occurs when ligaments and connective tissues harden (calcify), most commonly in the spine, creating in “bony bridges” between the tiny bones of the back (called vertebrae). This hardening can also be seen in the tissues around other joints (such as the elbows, knees, and Achilles tendons), resulting in bony growths (spurs) where the tendons and ligaments connect to the bone.
DISH is not a novel illness; it has been found in ancient Egyptian bones and has been detected throughout the archaeological record. However, many doctors are still unfamiliar with DISH because of the wide range of symptoms from person to person and our lack of knowledge of the condition.
28. Felty’s Syndrome
Felty’s Syndrome (FS) is an uncommon condition that most commonly occurs as a side effect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). FS most commonly occurs when a person has had chronic RA for some years and is defined by the presence of three primary conditions: a low white blood cell count (neutropenia), splenomegaly, and rheumatoid arthritis.
When compared to those with RA, people with FS have a higher risk of infection. This increased risk is due to a low white blood cell count, as these cells are an important element of your immunological response to invading germs.
29. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Although the disease can affect any organ system, the upper respiratory tract (sinuses, nose, ears), lungs, kidneys, skin, and nerves are the most often affected.
30. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD)
Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is an autoimmune disease that is thought to be a “overlap” of several inflammatory autoimmune connective tissue diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), scleroderma, Sjogren’s syndrome, and inflammatory myositis. It was first described in 1972. (dermatomyositis and polymyositis). It can also happen if you have Sjogren’s syndrome. Symptoms of a number of these illnesses can be seen in people with MCTD. In many cases, symptoms typical of one of the diseases, particularly scleroderma or lupus, eventually dominate this heterogeneous collection of symptoms.
31. Paget’s Disease
Paget’s disease of the bones, commonly known as Paget’s disease, is characterized by unusually rapid bone healing, which can result in weaker bones and increased bone growth. Normal bone tissue undergoes a continuous cycle of breakdown, resorption by the body, and rebuilding. On the other hand, Paget’s disease causes a greater concentration of the bone cells responsible for bone absorption (osteoclasts) and bone production (osteoblasts), resulting in softer, more brittle bones and aberrant bone structure.
32. Raynaud’s Phenomenon
Raynaud’s phenomenon is a disorder that occurs when the arteries in the fingers and toes get constricted (spasm). When a person is chilly or under mental turmoil, Raynaud’s phenomenon happens frequently. Because the hands and feet have fewer big blood vessels, it is more difficult for the blood to flow when these arteries spasm. The tips of the fingers and toes turn white, then blue, then red. The skin on the fingers and toes feels chilly because the blood that keeps them warm isn’t getting to them. Although attacks can last anywhere from minutes to hours, they seldom result in lasting tissue damage.
Raynaud’s phenomenon is named after Maurice Raynaud, a French doctor who originally characterized the disease in the mid-nineteenth century. When there is no known underlying illness, Raynaud’s is referred to as primary Raynaud’s, and when it is linked to a connective tissue disease or blood vessel inflammation, it is referred to as secondary Raynaud’s.